Listening
 K-2  3-5  6-8  9-12
  Listen for information and understanding.
  • Apply active listening strategies in a variety of settings:
    • Focus
    • Think
    • Respond verbally and nonverbally
  • Process information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevance.
  • Connect information to prior knowledge and personal experiences.
  • Listen to follow one- or two-step directions.
  • Ask questions, share ideas, or paraphrase to enhance the understanding of what is being said.
  • Gather and convey information from the listening experience (e.g., retell, relate prior knowledge, summarize, follow directions).
  Listen for interpretation, analysis, and evaluation.
  • Determine a speaker's general purpose:
    • To inform
    • To entertain
    • To persuade
  • Determine a purpose for listening:
    • To obtain information
    • To take action
    • To make decisions
    • To solve problems
    • For enjoyment
  • Use listening to interpret, analyze, and evaluate:
    • Use the sounds, segments, rhythms, and patterns of language to interpret what is heard.
    • Listen to analyze and interpret information, opinions, issues, and ideas.
  Listen to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships.
  • Listen in one-on-one, small group, and large group settings to make connections with others.
  • Demonstrate respectful behaviors that indicate active listening. (e.g., eye contact, nonverbal cues, body language).
  • Ask questions to maintain engagement and an understanding of what is being said.
  • Make respectful comments to agree or disagree without dominating.
  • Display appropriate turn-taking behaviors.
  Listen for information and understanding.
  • Apply active listening strategies in a variety of settings:
    • Focus
    • Think
    • Respond verbally and nonverbally
  • Process information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevance.
  • Connect information to prior knowledge and personal experiences.
  • Apply knowledge of verbal and nonverbal messages to anticipate key ideas and transitions.
  • Listen to follow multiple-step directions.
  • Ask questions, share ideas, or paraphrase to enhance the understanding of what is being said.
  • Gather and convey information from the listening experience (e.g., retell, relate prior knowledge, summarize, follow directions, list key ideas, paraphrase, and take notes).
  Listen for interpretation, analysis, and evaluation.
  • Determine a speaker's general purpose:
    • To inform
    • To entertain
    • To persuade
  • Determine a purpose for listening:
    • To obtain information
    • To take action
    • To make decisions
    • To solve problems
    • For enjoyment
  • Use listening to interpret, analyze, and evaluate:
    • Identify language sounds and patterns and how they affect the listener (e.g., alliteration, rhyme, onomatopoeia).
    • Listen to analyze and evaluate information, ideas, opinions, issues, themes, and experiences from a range of academic and nonacademic presentations.
    • Determine a speaker's attitude toward a subject and the audience through verbal and nonverbal cues.
  Listen to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships.
  • Listen in one-on-one, small group, and large group settings to make connections with others.
  • Demonstrate respectful behaviors that indicate active listening. (e.g., eye contact, nonverbal cues, body language).
  • Ask questions to maintain engagement and an understanding of what is being said.
  • Make respectful comments to agree or disagree without dominating.
  • Display appropriate turn-taking behaviors.
  Listen for information and understanding.
  • Apply active listening strategies in a variety of settings:
    • Focus
    • Think
    • Respond verbally and nonverbally
  • Process information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevance.
  • Connect information to prior knowledge and personal experiences.
  • Apply knowledge of verbal and nonverbal messages to anticipate key ideas and transitions.
  • Listen to follow multiple-step directions.
  • Ask questions, share ideas, or paraphrase to enhance the understanding of what is being said.
  • Gather and convey information from the listening experience (e.g., retell, relate prior knowledge, summarize, follow directions, list key ideas, paraphrase, and take notes).
  Listen for interpretation, analysis, and evaluation.
  • Determine a speaker's general purpose:
    • To inform
    • To entertain
    • To persuade
  • Determine a purpose for listening:
    • To obtain information
    • To take action
    • To make decisions
    • To solve problems
    • For enjoyment
  • Use listening to interpret, analyze, and evaluate:
    • Listen to analyze and evaluate information, ideas, opinions, issues, themes, and experiences from a range of academic and nonacademic presentations.
    • Identify how format, language, style, and context communicate the author's message and affect the listener.
  Listen to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships.
  • Listen in one-on-one, small group, and large group settings to make connections with others.
  • Demonstrate respectful behaviors that indicate active listening. (e.g., eye contact, nonverbal cues, body language).
  • Ask questions to maintain engagement and an understanding of what is being said.
  • Make respectful comments to agree or disagree without dominating.
  • Display appropriate turn-taking behaviors.
  Listen for information and understanding.
  • Apply active listening strategies in a variety of settings.
  • Process information, ideas, and opinions to determine relevance.
  • Connect information to prior knowledge, personal experience, and contemporary situations.
  • Apply knowledge of verbal and nonverbal messages to anticipate key ideas and transitions.
  • Apply strategies for listening comprehension such as taking notes, organizing, summarizing, asking questions, and paraphrasing.
  Listen for interpretation, analysis, and evaluation.
  • Listen to analyze and evaluate information, ideas, opinions, issues, themes, and experiences from a range of academic and nonacademic presentations.
  • Identify how format, language, style, and context communicate the author's message and affect the listener.
  • Synthesize multiple ideas and assimilate those that are useful.
  Listen to establish, maintain, and enhance relationships.
  • Listen at home, in school, and in social and business communities.
  • Provide verbal and nonverbal feedback to indicate engagement.
  Reading
 K-2  3-5  6-8  9-12
  Demonstrate an understanding of written language and the relationship of letters and words to the sounds of speech.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the concepts of print:
    • Hold a book correctly.
    • Identify the front/back cover of the book.
    • Identify the top/bottom of the book.
    • Read left to right with return sweep.
    • Identify the title of the book.
    • Point to the part that tells the story (words).
    • Identify beginning/ending of the story.
    • Identify a letter/word.
    • Recognize that illustrations and graphics help tell the story or communicate information.
  • Attend to sounds of language as distinct from meaning (phonological awareness):
    • Recognize, complete, and produce rhymes and alliterations.
    • Recognize initial, medial, and final sounds in words.
    • Isolate phonemes.
    • Identify phonemes.
    • Categorize phonemes.
    • Blend phonemes.
    • Segment phonemes.
    • Delete phonemes.
    • Add phonemes.
    • Substitute phonemes.
    • Manipulate onset-rime.
    • Blend, segment, and delete syllables.
  • Demonstrate an understanding of the alphabetic principle:
    • Identify upper- and lower-case letters.
    • Associate all consonant and vowel sounds with appropriate letters and combine these sounds into recognizable words.
  Use multiple decoding strategies to read words in text.
  • Apply knowledge of letter/sound correspondence.
  • Recognize sight words.
  • Look for parts within words.
  • Skip the unknown word(s) and continue reading.
  • Reread sentences/paragraphs.
  • Look for graphic cues.
  • Use the context of phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and text.
  • Ask if the word(s) makes sense.
  Independently read a significant number of books and texts each year. This includes reading both fiction and nonfiction in a variety of genres.
  • Read widely from fiction, nonfiction, and electronic resources for information and personal fulfillment: Fiction:
    • Picture/picture storybooks
    • Realistic fiction
    • Action
    • Mystery
    • Historical fiction
    • Multicultural literature
    • Poetry
    • Fairy tales
    Nonfiction: Concept book
    • Identification books
    • Life cycle books
    • Experiment, activity, craft, and how-to books
    • Documents, journals, diaries, and albums
    • Specialized books
    • Reference books
    • Life stories
    • Multicultural readings
    • Informational picture storybooks
    • Photographic essays
    Electronic resources:
    • Audio books
    • Online resources
  Read for a variety of purposes and across content areas.
  • Read for purposes relating to fiction and nonfiction:
    • For information
    • For enjoyment
  • Practice reading rate and strategies according to purpose:
    • Read to study
  Use a variety of skills and strategies to comprehend nonfiction and informational text.
  • Recognize text structure cues:
    • Description
    • Sequence or time order
  • Attend to typographic cues:
    • Font type
    • Font style
    • Spacing
  • Study graphic cues:
    • Titles
    • Headings
    • Photos
    • Illustrations
    • Charts
    • Tables
    • Graphs
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify purpose
    • Activate prior knowledge
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Create visual images
    • Draw inferences
    • Monitor for comprehension
    • Employ fix-ups:
      • Reread
      • Read ahead
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize within text
    • Engage in discussion
    • Write to learn
  Use a variety of strategies and skills to comprehend and interpret fiction.
  • Recognize elements of fiction:
    • Setting
    • Characters
  • Recognize plot structure cues:
    • Events
  • Study graphic cues:
    • Photos
    • Illustrations
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify purpose
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of elements of fiction
      • Of plot structure
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Create visual images
    • Draw inferences
    • Monitor for comprehension
    • Employ fix-ups:
      • Rereads
      • Reads ahead
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize information within text
    • Engage in discussion
  • Write to learn
  Read with fluency silently and aloud to support comprehension.
  • Read in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  • Attend to punctuation.
  • Read accurately with automaticity; resolve difficulties quickly, usually through self-correction.
  • Read with phrasing and expression to convey meaning (prosody).
  • Pace appropriately for comprehension (rate).
  Use a variety of strategies to develop and expand reading vocabulary.
  • Use letter-sound correspondence to decode words and build a sight word vocabulary.
  • Identify spelling patterns, such as word families.
  • Study word meanings, such as synonyms, antonyms, homographs, and homophones.
  • Use general context, including text and graphic cues.
  • Use glossaries, dictionaries, and other resources appropriately.
  • Use new vocabulary words in speaking and writing.
  • Read frequently and widely.
  Use multiple decoding strategies to read words in text.
  • Apply knowledge of letter/sound correspondence.
  • Recognize sight words.
  • Look for parts within words.
  • Skip the unknown word(s) and continue reading.
  • Reread sentences/paragraphs.
  • Look for graphic cues.
  • Use the context of phrases, sentences, paragraphs, and text.
  • Ask if the word(s) makes sense.
  Independently read a significant number of books and texts each year. This includes reading both fiction and nonfiction in a variety of genres.
  • Read widely from fiction, nonfiction, and electronic resources for information and personal fulfillment: Fiction:
    • Realistic fiction
    • Action
    • Mystery
    • Historical fiction
    • Multicultural literature
    • Science fiction/fantasy
    • Fairy tales
    • Fables
    • Myths
    • Folk tales
    Nonfiction:
    • Identification books
    • Life cycle books
    • Experiment, activity, craft, and how-to books
    • Documents, journals, diaries, and albums
    • Survey books
    • Specialized books
    • Reference books
    • Biographies
    • Autobiographies
    • Multicultural readings
    • Informational picture storybooks
    • Photographic essays
    • Poetry
    Electronic resources:
    • Audio books
    • Online resources
    • Blogs
  Read for a variety of purposes and across content areas.
  • Read for purposes relating to fiction and nonfiction:
    • For information
    • To perform a task
    • For a literary experience
    • For enjoyment
  • Adjust reading rate and strategies according to purpose:
  • Read to study
  • Scan (to find a fact or answer)
  Use a variety of skills and strategies to comprehend nonfiction and informational text.
  • Recognize text structure cues:
    • Description
    • Sequence or time order
    • Compare and contrast
    • Cause and effect
    • Problem-solution
  • Study graphic cues:
    • Titles
    • Headings
    • Photos
    • Illustrations
    • Charts
    • Tables
    • Graphs
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify purpose
    • Activate prior knowledge
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Create visual images
    • Draw inferences
    • Monitor for comprehension
    • Employ fix-ups:
      • Reread
      • Read ahead
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize
    • Engage in discussion
    • Write to learn
  Use a variety of strategies and skills to comprehend and interpret fiction.
  • Analyze elements of fiction:
    • Setting
    • Characterization
    • Theme
  • Analyze plot structure cues:
    • Events
    • Conflict
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify purpose
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of elements of fiction
      • Of plot structure
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Create visual images
    • Draw inferences
    • Monitor for comprehension
    • Employ fix-ups:
      • Reread
      • Read ahead
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize information within text
    • Engage in discussion
    • Write to learn
  Read with fluency silently and aloud to support comprehension.
  • Read in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  • Attend to punctuation.
  • Read accurately with automaticity; resolve difficulties quickly, usually through self-correction.
  • Read with phrasing and expression to convey meaning (prosody).
  • Pace appropriately for comprehension (rate).
  Use a variety of strategies to develop and expand reading vocabulary.
  • Identify spelling patterns, such as word families.
  • Use components of words, such as roots, prefixes, and suffixes.
  • Study word meanings, such as synonyms, antonyms, homographs, and homophones.
  • Use general context, including text and graphic cues.
  • Use glossaries, dictionaries, thesauruses, and other resources appropriately.
  • Use new vocabulary words in speaking and writing.
  • Read frequently and widely.
  Independently reads a significant number of books and text each year. This reading should include both fiction and nonfiction in a variety of genres.
  • Read widely from fiction, nonfiction, and electronic resources for information and personal fulfillment: Fiction:
    • Realistic fiction
    • Action
    • Mystery
    • Historical fiction
    • Multicultural literature
    • Science fiction/fantasy
    • Fables
    • Myths
    • Folk tales
    Nonfiction:
    • Experiment, activity, craft, and how-to books
    • Documents, journals, diaries, and albums
    • Survey books
    • Specialized books
    • Reference books
    • Biographies
    • Autobiographies
    • Multicultural readings
    • Poetry
    Electronic resources:
    • Audio books
    • Online resources
    • Blogs
  Read for a variety of purposes and across content areas.
  • Read for purposes relating to fiction and nonfiction:
    • For information
    • To perform a task
    • For a literary experience
    • For enjoyment
  • Adjust reading rate and strategies according to purpose:
    • Read to study
    • Scan (to find a fact or answer)
    • Skim (for general concepts and ideas)
    • Engage in technical reading
  Use a variety of skills and strategies to comprehend nonfiction and informational text.
  • Recognize text structure cues:
    • Description
    • Sequence or time order
    • Compare and contrast
    • Cause and effect
    • Problem-solution
  • Study graphic cues:
    • Titles
    • Headings
    • Photos
    • Illustrations
    • Charts
    • Tables
    • Graphs
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify purpose
    • Activate prior knowledge
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Create visual images
    • Draw inferences
    • Monitor for comprehension
    • Employ fix-ups:
      • Reread
      • Read ahead
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize
    • Engage in discussion
    • Write to learn
  Use a variety of strategies and skills to comprehend and interpret fiction.
  • Analyze elements of fiction:
    • Setting
    • Characterization
    • Point of view
    • Theme
  • Analyze plot structure cues:
    • Exposition
    • Conflict
    • Rising action
    • Climax
    • Falling action
    • Resolution
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify purpose
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of elements of fiction
      • Of plot structure
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Create visual images
    • Draw inferences
    • Monitor for comprehension
    • Employ fix-ups:
      • Reread
      • Read ahead
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize information within text
    • Engage in discussion
    • Write to learn
  Read with fluency silently and aloud to support comprehension.
  • Read in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  • Attend to punctuation.
  • Read accurately and smoothly with rhythm, flow, and meter; resolve difficulties quickly, usually through self-correction.
  • Read with phrasing and expression to convey meaning (prosody).
  • Pace appropriately for comprehension (rate)
  Use a variety of strategies to develop and expand reading vocabulary.
  • Study word meanings, such as synonyms, antonyms, and idioms.
  • Study word origins and derivations.
  • Use general context, including text and graphic cues.
  • Use specific context clues within the sentence, including synonyms, antonyms, definitions, and examples.
  • Use glossaries, dictionaries, thesauruses, and other resources appropriately.
  • Use new vocabulary words in speaking and writing.
  • Read frequently and widely
  Independently read a significant number of books and texts each year. This reading should include both fiction and nonfiction in a variety of genres.
  • Read widely from fiction, nonfiction, and electronic resources for information and personal fulfillment:
    • Include a significant number of books or texts
    • Include a variety of materials representing different literary forms and authors
    • Include nonfiction and fiction
    • Include traditional and contemporary literature
    • Provide choice to motivate wide reading
    • Provide materials that vary by topic and reading level
  • Electronic resources:
    • Audio books
    • Online resources
    • EbscoHost databases
    • Online newspapers and magazines
    • Blogs and Wikis
    • Iowa AEA Online
  Read for a variety of purposes and across content areas.
  • Read for purposes relating to fiction and nonfiction:
    • For information
    • To perform a task
    • For a literary experience
    • For enjoyment
  • Adjust reading rate and strategies according to purpose:
    • Read to study
    • Scan (to find a fact or answer)
    • Skim (for general concepts and ideas)
    • Practice technical reading
  Use a variety of skills and strategies to comprehend complex nonfiction and informational text.
    Opportunities to develop these skills should take place in all content areas, including English/Language Arts. Skills and strategies include:
  • Understand the organization, structure, and elements of nonfiction and informational text.
  • Use graphic cues such as titles, headings, photos, illustrations, charts, and tables.
  • Use text structures such as description, sequence, chronological order, compare/contrast, problem-solution, cause/effect, main idea/detail, or classification.
  • Relate new information to prior knowledge and experience.
  • Generate questions to understand context.
  • Evaluate information critically based on relevancy, objectivity, and reliability.
  • Analyze the logic and use of evidence in authorís argument.
  • Draw conclusions based on facts and inferences.
  • Restate or summarize information by determining main ideas and supporting details.
  • Synthesize information from multiple sources.
  • Discuss ideas in small and large groups.
  Use a variety of strategies and skills to comprehend and interpret complex literature
    Opportunities to develop these skills may be offered most frequently in the English/Language Arts classroom but may be reinforced in other content areas using fiction that supports the content being learned. Skills and strategies include:
  • Make predictions and draw inferences
  • Generate questions
  • Determine importance
  • Monitor and adjust as needed to make clarifications
  • Evaluate the text to include character motivation and literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, symbolism)
  • Analyze literature based on the literary elements: setting, plot, characterization, theme, mood, point of view, and tone
  • Summarize
  • Synthesize literary materials
  • Visualize by depicting key events and characters in nontext representations
  • Engage in small and large group discussion
  Read with fluency silently and aloud to support comprehension.
  • Read in phrases, clauses, and sentences.
  • Attend to punctuation.
  • Read accurately and smoothly with rhythm, flow, and meter; resolve difficulties quickly, usually through self-correction.
  • Read with phrasing and expression to convey meaning (prosody).
  • Pace appropriately for comprehension (rate).
  Use a variety of strategies to understand unfamiliar vocabulary found in narrative text, technical reading, and literary text.
  • Use a variety of strategies to learn word meanings of unfamiliar vocabulary found in narrative text, informational text, technical reading, and literary text:
  • Use structural analysis to decode words (prefixes, suffixes, inflectional endings).
  • Use knowledge of root words, word origins, derivations, synonyms, antonyms, and idioms to determine the meanings of vocabulary found in narrative texts, informational texts, technical reading, and literary text.
  • Understand the meaning of most words in a text.
  • Use a variety of strategies to understand the meaning of specialized and technical terms and idiomatic and figurative terms.
  • Demonstrate flexibility in extending the meaning of words.
  • Use glossary, dictionary, thesaurus, and other resources appropriately.
  Speaking
 K-2  3-5  6-8  9-12
  Consider audience and variables in the speaking situation.
  • Analyze context and occasion.
  • Select content to achieve a particular purpose.
  • Adjust content to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of audience members.
  • Clarify, illustrate, or expand on a response when asked.
  Produce a coherent message..
  • Choose language and vocabulary appropriate to the message and the audience.
  • Pronounce words correctly.
  • Adjust volume to purpose and audience.
  • Adjust rate to convey meaning.
  • Add stress (emphasis) and inflection to enhance meaning.
  • Shape information to achieve a particular purpose and to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of audience members.
  • Develop several main points relating to a single thesis.
  • Use notes or other memory aids to structure the presentation.
  Participate in a variety of communication situations.
  • Participate in small and large group discussions and presentations.
  • Collaborate with peers.
  • Deliver reports.
  • Conduct interviews.
  • Plan and participate in group presentations.
  • Contribute to informal and formal debates.
  • Select audio, visual, or multimedia aids and technology to support a presentation.
  • Participate in oral presentations for defined purposes.
  • Present dramatic readings, recitations, and performances.
  • Express and solicit opinions.
  Use appropriate content and conventions for purpose, audience, occasion, and context.
  • Use languages ý vocabulary and detail ý appropriate for purpose, audience, and occasion.
  • Use emphasis and expression to perform oral presentations and recitations.
  • Use authentic voice and personal style that reflect the speaker's commitment to the message.
  • Communicate feelings and needs in appropriate context.
  • Raise topics likely to be of interest to another person.
  • Ask questions of peers and teachers.
  • Gather and share information in formal and informal situations
  • Paraphrase information gained from reading, listening, or viewing.
  Demonstrate control of delivery skills.
  • Use delivery skills appropriate to speaking situations.
  • Adjust delivery in response to audience.
  • Use appropriate volume and vocal expression.
  • Articulate clearly.
  • Pronounce words accurately.
  • Attend to rate of delivery.
  • Engage the audience with appropriate verbal cues and eye contact.
  • Project a sense of individuality and personality in selecting and organizing content and in delivery.
  • Incorporate multimedia resources to support and enhance presentation.
  Participate appropriately in one-on-one situations and group settings.
    Participate in one-on-one communication:
  • Respond to adult or peer-initiated topics.
  • Initiate new topics.
  • Ask relevant questions.
  • Respond to questions with appropriate elaboration.
  • Use language cues to indicate different levels of certainty or to hypothesize.
  • Confirm understanding by paraphrasing an adult's or peer's directions or suggestions. Participate in group communication:
  • Display appropriate turn-taking behavior.
  • Actively solicit another person's comments or opinions.
  • Share opinions without dominating.
  • Respond to comments and questions.
  • Clarify, illustrate, or expand on an opinion or response when asked; ask classmates for similar expansions.
  • Demonstrate respect for the viewpoints of others.
  Recognize the role of evaluation in oral communication.
  • Generate and use criteria to prepare oral presentations and discussions.
  • Respond respectfully to questions and feedback about own presentation.
  • Participate in peer review of oral presentations.
  • Modify delivery or content during a presentation in response to verbal and nonverbal cues.
  Recognize the role of response in oral communication.
  • Use active listening strategies:
    • Focus
    • Think
    • Respond verbally and nonverbally
  • Ask and respond to questions.
  • Participate in and follow agreed-upon rules for conversation and discussion.
  • Participate as an effective audience member by providing appropriate feedback.
  Consider audience and variables in the speaking situation.
  • Adjust content for different audiences (e.g., fellow classmates, parents).
  • Respond with appropriate information or opinions to questions asked.
  Produce a coherent message.
Effective speakers use clear language to organize and connect their thoughts and ideas.
  • Choose language and vocabulary appropriate to the message and the audience.
  • Pronounce words correctly.
  • Use appropriate volume.
  • Adjust rate to convey meaning.
  • Shape and organize content to achieve a purpose.
  • Develop several main points relating to a single thesis.
  • Use notes or other memory aids to structure the presentation.
  Participate in a variety of communication situations.
  • Participate in small and large group discussions and presentations.
  • Collaborate with peers.
  • Deliver reports.
  • Conduct interviews.
  • Plan and participate in group presentations.
  • Contribute to informal debates.
  • Select audio, visual, or multimedia aids and technology to support a presentation.
  • Participate in oral presentations for defined purposes.
  • Present dramatic readings, recitations, and performances.
  • Express and solicit opinions.
  Use appropriate content and conventions for purpose, audience, occasion, and context.
  • Use language, vocabulary and detail appropriate for purpose, audience, and occasion.
  • Use emphasis and expression to perform oral presentations and recitations.
  • Communicate feelings and needs in appropriate context.
  • Raise topics likely to be of interest to another person.
  • Ask questions of peers and teachers.
  • Gather and share information in formal and informal situations.
  • Paraphrase information gained from reading, listening, or viewing.
  Demonstrate control of delivery skills.
  • Use delivery skills appropriate to speaking situations.
  • Use appropriate volume and vocal expression.
  • Articulate clearly.
  • Pronounce words accurately.
  • Attend to rate of delivery.
  • Engage the audience with appropriate verbal cues and eye contact.
  • Project a sense of individuality and personality in delivery.
  Participate appropriately in one-on-one situations and group settings.
    Participate in one-on-one communication:
  • Respond to adult or peer-initiated topics.
  • Initiate new topics.
  • Ask relevant questions.
  • Respond to questions with appropriate elaboration.
  • Confirm understanding by paraphrasing an adult's or peer's directions or suggestions. Participate in group communication:
  • Display appropriate turn-taking behavior.
  • Actively solicit another person's comments or opinions.
  • Share opinions without dominating.
  • Respond to comments and questions.
  • Clarify and/or support opinions expressed.
  • Demonstrate respect for the viewpoints of others.
  Recognize the role of evaluation in oral communication.
  • Use student- and teacher-developed criteria to evaluate oral presentations and discussions.
  • Respond respectfully to questions and feedback about own presentation.
  • Participate in peer review of oral presentations.
  Recognize the role of response in oral communication.
  • Use active listening strategies:
    • Focus
    • Think
    • Respond verbally and nonverbally
  • Ask and respond to questions.
  • Participate in and follow agreed-upon rules for conversation and discussion.
  • Participate as an effective audience member by providing appropriate feedback.
  Consider audience and variables in the speaking situation.
  • Analyze context and occasion.
  • Select content to achieve a particular purpose.
  • Adjust content to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of audience members.
  • Clarify, illustrate, or expand on a response when asked.
  Produce a coherent message.
Effective speakers use clear language to organize and connect their thoughts and ideas.
  • Choose language and vocabulary appropriate to the message and the audience.
  • Pronounce words correctly.
  • Adjust volume to purpose and audience.
  • Adjust rate to convey meaning.
  • Add stress (emphasis) and inflection to enhance meaning.
  • Shape information to achieve a particular purpose and to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of audience members.
  • Develop several main points relating to a single thesis.
  • Use notes or other memory aids to structure the presentation.
  Participate in a variety of communication situations..
  • Participate in small and large group discussions and presentations.
  • Collaborate with peers.
  • Deliver reports.
  • Conduct interviews.
  • Plan and participate in group presentations.
  • Contribute to informal and formal debates.
  • Select audio, visual, or multimedia aids and technology to support a presentation.
  • Participate in oral presentations for defined purposes.
  • Present dramatic readings, recitations, and performances.
  • Express and solicit opinions.
  Use appropriate content and conventions for purpose, audience, occasion, and context.
  • Use languages, vocabulary and detail appropriate for purpose, audience, and occasion.
  • Use emphasis and expression to perform oral presentations and recitations.
  • Use authentic voice and personal style that reflect the speaker's commitment to the message.
  • Communicate feelings and needs in appropriate context.
  • Raise topics likely to be of interest to another person.
  • Ask questions of peers and teachers.
  • Gather and share information in formal and informal situations
  • Paraphrase information gained from reading, listening, or viewing.
  Demonstrate control of delivery skills.
  • Use delivery skills appropriate to speaking situations.
  • Adjust delivery in response to audience.
  • Use appropriate volume and vocal expression.
  • Articulate clearly.
  • Pronounce words accurately.
  • Attend to rate of delivery.
  • Engage the audience with appropriate verbal cues and eye contact.
  • Project a sense of individuality and personality in selecting and organizing content and in delivery.
  • Incorporate multimedia resources to support and enhance presentation.
  Participate appropriately in one-on-one situations and group settings.
    Participate in one-on-one communication:
  • Respond to adult or peer-initiated topics.
  • Initiate new topics.
  • Ask relevant questions.
  • Respond to questions with appropriate elaboration.
  • Use language cues to indicate different levels of certainty or to hypothesize.
  • Confirm understanding by paraphrasing an adult's or peer's directions or suggestions. Participate in group communication:
  • Display appropriate turn-taking behavior.
  • Actively solicit another person's comments or opinions.
  • Share opinions without dominating.
  • Respond to comments and questions.
  • Clarify, illustrate, or expand on an opinion or response when asked; ask classmates for similar expansions.
  • Demonstrate respect for the viewpoints of others.
  Recognize the role of evaluation in oral communication.
  • Generate and use criteria to prepare oral presentations and discussions.
  • Respond respectfully to questions and feedback about own presentation.
  • Participate in peer review of oral presentations.
  • Modify delivery or content during a presentation in response to verbal and nonverbal cues.
  Recognize the role of response in oral communication.
  • Use active listening strategies:
    • Focus
    • Think
    • Respond verbally and nonverbally
  • Ask and respond to questions.
  • Participate in and follow agreed-upon rules for conversation and discussion.
  • Participate as an effective audience member by providing appropriate feedback.
  Consider audience and variables in the speaking situation.
Effective speakers adjust content and delivery according to the particular audience and occasion. In the public speaking situation:
  • Analyze context and occasion for messages.
  • Select content to achieve a particular purpose.
  • Adjust content to appeal to the interests and background knowledge of audience members.
  Produce a coherent message.
  • Effective speakers use clear language to organize and connect their thoughts and ideas.
  • Develop several main points related to a single thesis.
  • Use familiar organizational patterns, such as compare/contrast or problem/solution.
  • Use effective introductions, transitions, and conclusions.
  Participate in a variety of communication situations.
  • Participate in oral presentations for defined purposes.
  • Deliver multimedia presentations.
  • Present dramatic reading, recitations, and performances both in and out of the classroom.
  Use appropriate content and conventions for purpose, audience, occasion, and context.
  • Use language that matches the audience's level of understanding, such as vocabulary and amount of detail.
  • Use authentic voice that reflects the speaker's commitment to the message and personal style.
  • Use language that promotes emotional responses related to the speaker's purpose.
  Demonstrate control of delivery skills.
  • Use a variety of verbal and nonverbal techniques for presentation.
  • Maintain acceptable levels of poise, including eye contact, body position/movement, and vocal expression.
  • Use appropriate pronunciation and clear articulation.
  • Effectively use materials and equipment.
  Participate appropriately in one-on-one situations and group settings.
  • Engage in purposeful and meaningful dialogue.
  • Demonstrate respect for the viewpoints of others.
  • Ask relevant questions and respond to questions.
  • Initiate new ideas on relevant topics.
  • Confirm understanding by paraphrasing.
  • Resolve conflict through negotiation and compromise.
  Recognize the role of evaluation in oral communication.
  • Respond to questions and feedback about own presentation.
  • Accept feedback respectfully to improve future oral presentations.
  • Modify delivery or content during a presentation in response to verbal and nonverbal cues.
  Recognize the role of response in oral communication.
  • Participate as an effective audience member by providing appropriate feedback.
  • Engage in active listening demonstrated by verbal and nonverbal cues.
  Viewing
 K-2  3-5  6-8  9-12
  Analyze the effects of visual media on society and culture.
  • Identify purposes of visual media:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
  • Analyze elements and effects of visual media:
    • Identify and explain common symbols.
    • Identify and explain the differences between real and make-believe people, places, things, and events.
    • Predict potential effects on viewers.
    • Discuss the presence of visual media in daily life.
  Use a range of strategies to interpret visual media.
  • Distinguish among the languages of communication:
    • Spoken
    • Written
    • Visual
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify and analyze the purpose and the elements used to convey purpose in a visual medium:
      • Symbols
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of content
      • Of the visual medium
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Draw inferences
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize within a visual media
    • Discuss and/or write:
      • Initial impressions
  Apply a variety of criteria to evaluate informational media.
Informational Media include Web sites, documentaries, and news programs.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Quality
    • Coverage
  • Analyze and evaluate the use of media to portray information:
    • Discuss various ways information is presented in the media.
  Understand how literary forms can be represented in visual narratives
Visual Narratives: The most common visual narratives are film, video, and live performances; but series of illustrations or photographs, too, can tell stories. Recent contemporary texts include graphic novels.
  • Explain how literary forms and elements are represented in visual narratives (e.g., characters from a novel are portrayed in a live performance through clothing, facial expressions, body language, gestures, actions, and interactions with other characters; characterization in a graphic novel is conveyed through color and shape).
  • Explain the use and meaning of symbols and images in visual narratives.
  • Explain how different elements of a visual narrative affect a viewer's perceptions of characters (e.g., a "hero" or "villain").
  Analyze the effects of visual media on society and culture.
  • Identify purposes of visual media:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
    • To focus attention on an issue
    • To persuade
    • For artistic expression
  • Analyze elements and effects of visual media:
    • Identify and analyze the impact of common symbols on various audiences.
    • Identify and analyze the impact of stereotypical images on various audiences.
    • Identify and explain the impact of differences between real life and the world created by visual media on various audiences.
    • Predict potential effects on viewers.
    • Discuss the presence of visual media in daily life.
  Use a range of strategies to interpret visual media.
  • Distinguish among the languages of communication:
    • Spoken
    • Written
    • Visual
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify and analyze the purpose and the elements used to convey purpose in a visual medium:
      • Bias
      • Tone of voice
      • Symbols
      • Stereotypes
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of content
      • Of informational and narrative text structures and elements
      • Of the visual medium
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Draw inferences
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize
    • Discuss and/or write:
      • Initial impressions
      • Appeal of different elements
      • A reflection
  Apply a variety of criteria to evaluate informational media.
Informational Media include Web sites, documentaries, and news programs.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Authority
    • Objectivity
    • Quality
    • Coverage
    • Currency
    • Relevance
  • Analyze and evaluate the use of media to portray information:
    • Discuss various ways information is presented in the media.
    • Consider the extent to which media presentations provide entertainment as well as information.
  Understand how literary forms can be represented in visual narratives
Visual Narratives: The most common visual narratives are film, video, and live performances; but series of illustrations or photographs, too, can tell stories. Recent contemporary texts include graphic novels.
  • Explain how literary forms and elements are represented in visual narratives (e.g., characters from a novel are portrayed in a live performance through clothing, facial expressions, body language, gestures, actions, and interactions with other characters; characterization in a graphic novel is conveyed through color, line, texture, and shape).
  • Explain how elements of visual narrative (including visual, aural, oral, and kinesthetic components) work interdependently to represent a literary form (e.g., setting in a video is conveyed through music, sound effects, lighting, and camera angles and distance).
  • Explain how visual elements convey meaning of symbols, images, and stereotypes in literary forms.
  • Compare and contrast literary forms and visual narratives.
  Analyze the effects of visual media on society and culture.
  • Identify purposes of visual media:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
    • To focus attention on an issue
    • To persuade
    • For artistic expression
  • Explain how purpose creates bias
  • Explain how the choice of visual media shapes a message:
    • Point of view
    • Coverage
  • Analyze elements and effects of visual media:
    • Identify and analyze the impact of common symbols from a multicultural perspective.
    • Identify and analyze the use of common stereotypes from a multicultural perspective.
    • Identify distorted representations of society presented by visual media.
    • Explore the role of power and profit in visual media production.
    • Explain how various visual media and their messages are uniquely perceived.
    • Discuss the presence of visual media in daily life, in society, and across cultures.
  Use a range of strategies to interpret visual media.
  • Distinguish among the languages of communication:
    • Spoken
    • Written
    • Visual
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify and analyze the purpose and elements used to convey purpose in a visual medium:
      • Bias
      • Tone
      • Viewpoints
      • Symbols
      • Stereotypes
      • Themes or lessons
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of content
      • Of informational and narrative text structures and elements
      • Of the visual medium
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Draw inferences
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize
    • Discuss and/or write:
      • Appeal of different elements
      • An interpretation
      • An evaluation
      • A reflection
  Apply a variety of criteria to evaluate informational media.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Authority
    • Objectivity
    • Quality
    • Coverage
    • Currency
    • Relevance
  • Analyze and evaluate the use of media to portray information:
    • Analyze the way the author selects information and uses visual language to influence readers/viewers.
    • Explain the role of advertising as part of an informational media presentation.
    • Evaluate the effectiveness of visual media in presenting information and viewpoints.
  Understand how literary forms can be represented in visual narratives
  • Explain how literary forms and elements are represented in visual narratives (e.g., characters from a novel are portrayed in a live performance through clothing, facial expressions, body language, gestures, actions, and interactions with other characters; characterization in a graphic novel is conveyed through color, line, texture, and shape).
  • Explain how elements of visual narrative (including visual, aural, oral, and kinesthetic components) work interdependently to represent a literary form (e.g., setting in a video is conveyed through music, sound effects, lighting, and camera angles and distance).
  • Identify techniques used in visual narratives to influence or appeal to a particular audience.
  • Explain the use and meaning of images, symbols, and stereotypes (physical characteristics, manners of speech, beliefs and attitudes).
  • Explain how the visual elements portray a character's motivations and decisions.
  • Analyze the use of visual elements to portray literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, symbolism).
  • Compare and contrast literary forms and visual narratives.
  Analyze the effects of visual media on society and culture.
  • Identify purposes of visual media:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
    • To focus attention on an issue
    • To persuade
    • For artistic expression
  • Explain how purpose creates bias
  • Explain how the choice of visual media shapes a message:
    • Point of view
    • Coverage
    • Limited portrayal
  • Analyze the influence of visual media on society (economic, political, social, and cultural influences):
    • Identify and analyze the impact of common symbols and stereotypes from a multicultural perspective.
    • Recognize that visual media often present a distorted representation of society.
    • Explain the role of the media in addressing social and cultural issues.
    • Explore the role of power and profit in visual media production.
    • Explain the influence of images and the ideas they represent on the perceptions, belief systems, and values in society and within cultures.
    • Explain how various visual media and their messages are uniquely perceived and shape a viewer's perceptions of reality.
    • Describe legal and ethical issues related to the use of visual media.
  Use a range of strategies to interpret visual media.
  • Distinguish among the languages of communication:
    • Spoken
    • Written
    • Visual
  • Use comprehension strategies:
    • Identify and analyze the purpose and the elements used to convey purpose in a visual medium:
      • Bias
      • Tone
      • Viewpoints
      • Symbols
      • Stereotypes
      • Themes or lessons
    • Activate prior knowledge:
      • Of content
      • Of informational and narrative text structures and elements
      • Of the visual medium
    • Predict and verify
    • Ask and answer questions
    • Draw inferences
    • Identify main ideas
    • Summarize
    • Draw conclusions
    • Evaluate
    • Synthesize:
      • Analyze a visual medium across a period of time.
      • Write a review of a visual medium.
      • Construct an original visual media message.
    • Discuss and/or write:
      • Appeal of different elements
      • An interpretation
      • An evaluation
      • A reflection
      • Apply a variety of criteria to evaluate informational media.
    • Evaluate information:
      • Authority
      • Objectivity
      • Quality
      • Coverage
      • Currency
      • Relevance
    • Analyze and evaluate the use of media to portray information:
      • Analyze the way the author selects information and uses visual language to influence readers/viewers.
      • Identify the intended messages of advertising as part of an informational media presentation.
      • Evaluate the effectiveness of visual media in presenting information and viewpoints.
  Understand how literary forms can be represented in visual narratives.
Visual Narratives: The most common visual narratives are film, video, and live performances; but series of illustrations or photographs, too, can tell stories. Recent contemporary texts include graphic novels.
  • Explain how literary forms and elements are represented in visual narratives (e.g., characters from a novel are portrayed in a live performance through clothing, facial expressions, body language, gestures, actions, and interactions with other characters; characterization in a graphic novel is conveyed through color, line, texture, and shape).
  • Explain how elements of visual narrative (including visual, aural, oral, and kinesthetic components) work interdependently to represent a literary form (e.g., setting in a video is conveyed through music, sound effects, lighting, and camera angles and distance).
  • Identify techniques used in visual narratives to influence or appeal to a particular audience.
  • Explain the use and meaning of symbols, images, and stereotypes (physical characteristics, manners of speech, beliefs and attitudes).
  • Explain how the visual elements portray a character's motivations and decisions.
  • Analyze the use of visual elements to portray literary devices (e.g., foreshadowing, symbolism).
  • Compare and contrast literary forms and visual narratives.
  • Explain how editing shapes meaning in visual media.
  Writing
 K-2  3-5  6-8  9-12
  Use an effective writing process.
  • Prewrite*
    • Generate ideas
    • Take notes
    • Talk to others
    • Brainstorm
    • Outline
    • Gather information
    • Use graphic organizers
  • Draft*
    • Organize ideas into sentences and paragraphs.
    • Concentrate on connecting ideas around a single topic.
  • Revise*
    • Read aloud to help make revisions, clarify, or elaborate upon ideas.
    • Confer with others to improve writing.
  • Edit*
    • Self-edit errors in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and usage.
    • Confer with others to correct errors.
  • Publish*
    • Publish written work using print and technological resources.
    • Share completed work.
  Use knowledge of purpose, audience, format, and medium in developing written communication.
  • Write for different communication purposes*:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
  • Write for different audiences:
    • Write for self, teacher, and others.
  • Write using different formats*:
    • Letter
    • Journal
    • Narrative
    • Expository paragraph
    • Report
    • Poetry
    • Blog
  • Write for different mediums*:
    • Print and graphic text
    • Multimedia product
    • Online publication
  Apply writing strategies to communicate in a variety of genres.
  • Apply writing strategies*:
    • Graphic organizers
    • Free writes
    • Unsent letters
  • Write in a variety of genres*:
    • Stories
    • Letters
    • Poems
    • Journals
    • Summaries
    • Responses to literature
    • Informational reports
  Use writing as a tool for learning.
  • Write for different learning purposes*:
    • To improve comprehension of concepts
    • To increase retention of information
    • To connect new understandings with familiar ones
    • To elaborate on and manipulate ideas
    • To use new vocabulary
    • To engage in questioning and reasoning
    • To inform and support opinions about a topic
    • To reflect on experiences
    • To gain insight into author's craft
    • To support metacognition
  Engage in the information literacy process: access, evaluate, and communicate information and ideas.
  • Access information:
    • Generate questions and seek answers.
    • Select a topic.
    • Locate specific, relevant information from given source material.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Quality
    • Coverage
  • Communicate information and ideas:
    • Use information accurately and responsibly.
    • Communicate main ideas with original writing.
    • Use technology to communicate ideas.
  Write on demand.
  • Consider audience and purpose
  • Focus on a single topic
  • Draw upon experiences and observations
  • Use correct spelling of high-frequency and grade-level words
  • Create readable documents with legible handwriting
  Adhere to conventions generally established in spelling, punctuation, grammar, usage, syntax, and style appropriate to genre and writing situation.
  • Spelling
    • Make letter-sound associations
    • Spell high-frequency words correctly
    • Use invented spelling until words are learned
  • Capitalization
    • Capitalize beginning of sentence
    • Capitalize proper nouns
  • Punctuation
  • Use end punctuation:
    • Period (for statement)
    • Question mark
    • Exclamation point
  • Use quotation marks
  • Grammar
    • Identify and use nouns
    • Identify and use pronouns
    • Identify and use verbs
  • Usage
    • Use regular past tense verbs
  • Syntax
    • Write simple sentences:
      • Use simple/compound subjects
      • Use simple/compound verbs
  • Word choice and style:
    • Consider audience and purpose
    • Describe topic
  Incorporate technology as a tool to enhance writing.
  • Identify potential resources and acquire information from electronic and online resources.
  • Experiment with software products to create text, multimedia presentations, or projects.
  Use an effective writing process.
  • Prewrite*
    • Generate ideas
    • Take notes
    • Talk to others
    • Brainstorm
    • Outline
    • Gather information
    • Use graphic organizers
    • Use available tools, technology, libraries, and community resources
  • Draft*
    • Use paragraphs to develop separate ideas.
    • Concentrate on explaining, supporting, and connecting ideas.
    • Write with attention to audience.
    • Use an organizational scheme or structure.
    • Vary sentence length.
    • Use dialogue, sensory words, and details as appropriate.
    • Produce multiple drafts.
  • Revise*
    • Reread, reflect, and make revisions to clarify or elaborate upon ideas.
    • Confer with others to improve writing.
    • Apply criteria generated by self and others.
  • Edit*
    • Self-edit errors in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and usage.
    • Confer with others to correct errors.
    • Use a variety of print and technological resources to edit written work.
  • Publish*
    • Attend to document format.
    • Select medium for communication according to purpose.
    • Incorporate photos, illustrations, charts, and graphs as appropriate.
    • Publish written work using print and technological resources.
    • Share completed work with selected audience.
  Use knowledge of purpose, audience, format, and medium in developing written communication.
  • Write for different communication purposes*:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
    • To record
    • To describe
    • To persuade
    • To compare/contrast
    • To respond to reading
  • Write for different audiences:
    • Write for self, teacher, and others.
    • Anticipate questions an audience might ask and writes accordingly.
    • Identify and include information a diverse audience needs to know (e.g., explain appropriate prior events, activate background knowledge).
  • Write using different formats*:
    • Letter
    • Journal
    • Narrative
    • Expository paragraph
    • Research report
    • Poetry
    • News article/editorial
    • Script
    • Radio announcement
    • Blog
  • Write for different mediums*:
    • Print and graphic text
    • Broadcast
    • Multimedia product
    • Online publication
  Apply writing strategies to communicate in a variety of genres.
  • Apply writing strategies*:
    • Graphic organizers
    • Free writes
    • Unsent letters
    • Clustering
    • R.A.F.T. (Role, Audience, Format, Topic)
  • Write in a variety of genres*:
    • Narratives
    • Interviews
    • Autobiographies
    • Essays
    • Reviews
    • Electronic presentations
  Use writing as a tool for learning.
  • Write for different learning purposes*:
    • To improve comprehension of concepts
    • To increase retention of information
    • To synthesize new understandings with background knowledge
    • To elaborate on and manipulate ideas
    • To clarify thinking
    • To expand knowledge of general, academic, and content-specific vocabulary
    • To engage in questioning and reasoning
    • To form and support opinions about a topic
    • To reflect on experiences
    • To gain insight into author's craft
    • To support metacognition
  Engage in the information literacy process: access, evaluate, and communicate information and ideas:
  • Access information:
    • Generate questions to guide the research process.
    • Narrow a topic.
    • Locate research materials through print and electronic sources and interviews.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Authority
    • Objectivity
    • Quality
    • Coverage
    • Currency
    • Relevance
  • Communicate information and ideas:
    • Use information accurately, responsibly, and ethically.
    • Adhere to a consistent format for documentation.
    • Communicate research findings through a variety of mediums.
    • Use technology to communicate research findings.
  Write on demand.
  • Consider the purpose and audience
  • Focus on the topic with ample supporting details
  • Identify format for communication
  • Identify medium for communication
  • Draw upon experiences and observations
  • Use correct spelling of high-frequency and grade-level words; make few errors in punctuation and capitalization
  • Vary vocabulary and sentences
  • Reread to correct obvious errors
  Adhere to conventions generally established in spelling, punctuation, grammar, usage, syntax, and style appropriate to genre and writing situation.
  • Spelling
    • Distinguish among homophones
    • Use noun plurals
    • Apply -ie rule
  • Capitalization
    • Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives
    • Capitalize within quotations
  • Punctuation
    • Use end punctuation:
      • Period (for statement)
      • Period (for command)
      • Question mark
      • Exclamation point
    • Use quotation marks
    • Use commas
    • Use semicolons
  • Grammar
    • Identify and use nouns
    • Identify and use pronouns
    • Identify and use verbs/verb forms
    • Identify and use prepositions
    • Identify and use adjectives
    • Identify and use coordinating conjunctions
  • Usage
    • Attend to verb tenses
    • Maintain subject-verb agreement
  • Syntax
  • Write simple sentences:
    • Use simple/compound subjects.
    • Use simple/compound verbs.
  • Write compound sentences.
    • Use independent clauses.
  • Embed phrases in simple and compound sentences.
  • Word choice and style:
    • Use genre-specific conventions:
      • When constructing graphics
      • When creating bulleted lists
    • Consider audience and purpose.
    • Vary vocabulary.
    • Vary sentences.
    • Include action verbs, sensory details, and colorful modifiers.
  Incorporate technology as a tool to enhance writing.
  • Identify potential resources and acquire information from electronic and online resources.
  • Use a variety of software products to create text, multimedia presentations, or projects.
  Use an effective writing process.
  • Prewrite*
    • Generate ideas
    • Take notes
    • Talk to others
    • Brainstorm
    • Outline
    • Gather information
    • Use graphic organizers
    • Use available tools, technology, libraries, and community resources
  • Draft*
    • Use paragraphs to develop separate ideas.
    • Concentrate on explaining, supporting, and connecting ideas.
    • Write with attention to audience.
    • Use an organizational scheme or structure appropriate to audience and task.
    • Vary sentence structure.
    • Use dialogue, sensory words, and details as appropriate.
    • Use figurative language.
    • Produce multiple drafts.
  • Revise*
    • Reread, reflect, and make revisions to clarify or elaborate upon ideas.
    • Confer with others to improve writing.
    • Apply criteria generated by self and others.
  • Edit*
    • Self-edit errors in spelling, capitalization, punctuation, grammar, and usage.
    • Confer with others to correct errors.
    • Use a variety of print and technological resources to edit written work.
  • Publish*
    • Attend to document format.
    • Select medium for communication according to purpose.
    • Incorporate photos, illustrations, charts, and graphs as appropriate.
    • Publish written work using print and technological resources.
    • Share completed work with selected audience.
  Use knowledge of purpose, audience, format, and medium in developing written communication.
  • Write for different communication purposes*:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
    • To record
    • To describe
    • To persuade
    • To compare/contrast
    • To respond to reading and other forms of communication
  • Write for different audiences:
    • Write for self, teacher, peers, and others.
    • Vary form and content to match audience and purpose.
    • Identify and include information a diverse audience needs to know (e.g., explain appropriate prior events, activate background knowledge).
  • Write using different formats*:
    • Letter
    • Persuasive essay
    • Expository essay
    • Research report
    • Narrative
    • Poetry
    • News article/editorial
    • Script
    • Radio announcement
    • Short story
    • Debate
    • Blog
  • Write for different mediums*:
    • Print and graphic text
    • Broadcast
    • Multimedia product
    • Online publication
    • Podcast
  Apply writing strategies to communicate in a variety of genres.
  • Apply writing strategies*:
    • Graphic organizers
    • Free writes
    • Dialogue writing
    • Clustering
    • R.A.F.T. (Role, Audience, Format, Topic)
  • Write in a variety of genres*:
    • Persuasive essay
    • Description
    • Poetic forms
    • Literary responses
    • Visual representations
  Use writing as a tool for learning.
  • Write for different learning purposes*:
    • To improve comprehension of concepts
    • To increase retention of information
    • To synthesize new understandings with background knowledge
    • To elaborate on and manipulate ideas
    • To clarify thinking
    • To expand knowledge of general, academic, and content-specific vocabulary
    • To engage in questioning and reasoning
    • To form and support opinions about a topic
    • To reflect on experiences
    • To gain insight into author's craft
    • To support metacognition
  Engage in the information literacy process: access, evaluate, and communicate information and ideas.
  • Access information:
    • Generate questions to guide the research process.
    • Narrow a topic.
    • Locate research materials through print and electronic sources and interviews.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Authority
    • Objectivity
    • Quality
    • Coverage
    • Currency
    • Relevance
  • Communicate information and ideas:
    • Use information accurately, responsibly, and ethically.
    • Incorporate research findings and adhere to a consistent format for documentation.
    • Articulate a research question or thesis statement.
    • Communicate research findings through a variety of mediums.
    • Use technology to communicate research findings.
  Write on demand.
  • Consider the purpose and audience
  • Focus on the topic with ample supporting details and little or no extraneous information
  • Identify format for communication
  • Identify medium for communication
  • Draw upon experiences and observations
  • Use correct spelling of high-frequency and grade-level words; make few errors in punctuation and capitalization
  • Vary vocabulary and sentences
  • Reread to correct obvious errors
  Adhere to conventions generally established in spelling, punctuation, grammar, usage, syntax, and style appropriate to genre and writing situation.
  • Spelling
    • Distinguish among homophones
    • Use noun plurals
    • Apply -ie rule
    • Apply knowledge of suffixes (e.g., ible, able)
  • Capitalization
    • Capitalize proper nouns and proper adjectives
    • Capitalize within quotations
  • Punctuation
    • Use end punctuation:
      • Period (for statement)
      • Period (for command)
      • Period (for fragments when appropriate)
      • Question mark
      • Exclamation point
    • Use quotation marks
    • Use commas
    • Use semicolons
    • Use colons
  • Grammar
    • Identify and use nouns
    • Identify and use pronouns
    • Identify and use verbs/verb forms
    • Identify and use prepositions
    • Identify and use adjectives
    • Identify and use adverbs
    • Identify and use coordinating conjunctions
    • Identify and use subordinating conjunctions
  • Usage
    • Attend to verb tenses
    • Maintain subject-verb agreement
    • Attend to voice (active and passive)
  • Syntax
    • Write simple sentences:
      • Use simple/compound subjects.
      • Use simple/compound verbs.
    • Write compound sentences:
      • Use independent clauses.
    • Write complex sentences:
      • Use independent and dependent clauses.
    • Write compound-complex sentences.
    • Embed phrases in sentences.
  • Word choice and style:
    • Use genre-specific conventions:
      • When mixing genres and voices
      • When constructing graphics
      • When creating bulleted lists
    • Consider audience and purpose.
    • Attend to point of view.
    • Vary vocabulary.
    • Vary sentences.
    • Include action verbs, sensory details, and colorful modifiers.
  Incorporate technology as a tool to enhance writing.
  • Identify potential resources and acquire information from electronic and online resources.
  • Use a variety of software products to plan, organize, and create text and multimedia presentations and projects.
  • Use a variety of electronic resources to cite sources and prepare bibliographies.
  Use an effective writing process.
  • Use writing processes they have tailored to be most effective for them:
    • Use prewriting techniques.
    • Employ multiple strategies for developing and organizing a message.
    • Use a variety of strategies for reviewing and editing, including conferring with others.
    • Use strategies for preparing products for public audiences and deadlines.
    • Attend to document format.
    • Incorporate photos, illustrations, charts, and graphs as appropriate.
    • Publish written work using print and technological resources.
  Use knowledge of purpose, audience, format, and medium in developing written communication.
  • Write for different communication purposes*:
    • To entertain
    • To inform
    • To record
    • To describe
    • To persuade
    • To compare/contrast
    • To respond to reading and other forms of communication
  • Write for different audiences:
    • Write for self, teacher, peers, and others.
    • Vary form and content to match audience and purpose.
    • Identify and include information a diverse audience needs to know (e.g., explain appropriate prior events, activate background knowledge).
  • Write using different formats*:
    • Letter
    • Persuasive essay
    • Literary essay
    • Research report
    • Narrative essay
    • Expository essay
    • Poetry
    • News article/editorial
    • Script
    • Radio announcement
    • Short story
    • Lab report
    • Debate
    • Blog
  • Write for different mediums*:
    • Print and graphic text
    • Broadcast
    • Multimedia product
    • Online publication
    • Podcast
  Apply writing skills and strategies to effectively communicate in a variety of genres with various audiences.
  • Exposition
  • Literary analysis
  • Poetic forms
  • Narrative account or procedure
  • Persuasive essay
  • Technical/business writing
  • Informative writing
  • Reflective writing
  • Visual representations
  • Electronic presentations
  Use writing as a tool for learning.
  • Write to improve comprehension of concepts
  • Increase retention of information
  • Synthesize new understandings with background knowledge
  • Elaborate on and manipulate ideas
  • Expand knowledge of general, academic, and content-specific vocabulary
  • Form and support opinions about a topic
  • Gain insight into author's craft
  • Support metacognition
  • Reinforce literacy skills in other areas
  • Make personal connections through content
  • Generate thoughtful questioning and reasoning strategies
  • Enhance learning of content through the use of text structure
  • Explore and clarify ideas
  Engage in the information literacy process: access, evaluate, and communicate information and ideas.
  • Access information:
    • Formulate a clear research question or thesis statement to guide the research process.
    • Narrow a topic.
    • Use information from a variety of sources, both print and electronic, including electronic databases, the Internet, periodicals, interviews, surveys, books, and informational publications.
  • Evaluate information:
    • Authority
    • Objectivity
    • Quality
    • Coverage
    • Currency
    • Relevance
  • Communicate information and ideas:
    • Use information accurately, responsibly, and ethically.
    • Incorporate research findings and adhere to a consistent format for documentation.
    • Articulate a research question or thesis statement.
    • Communicate research findings through a variety of mediums, both written and spoken.
    • Use technology to communicate research findings.
  Write on demand.
  • Consider the purpose and audience
  • Focus on the topic with ample supporting details and little or no extraneous information
  • Identify organizational format
  • Identify medium for communication
  • Draw upon experiences and observations
  • Use correct spelling of high-frequency and grade-level words; make few errors in punctuation and capitalization
  • Use language effectively by varying vocabulary and sentences
  • Synthesize information from multiple resources into a brief and focused response
  • Reflect writer's personal style and viewpoints to suit the purpose of writing
  Adhere to conventions generally established in spelling, punctuation, grammar, usage, syntax, and style.
  • Analyze and revise written work:
    • Add or delete details.
    • Add or delete explanations.
    • Clarify difficult passages.
    • Rearrange words, sentences, and paragraphs to improve or clarify meaning.
    • Sharpen the focus.
    • Reconsider the organizational structure.
  • Match conventions used to purpose, audience, and style of writing:
    • Demonstrate the ability to match the conventions, grammar, and usage of English.
    • Demonstrate the use of a variety of sentence patterns.
    • Proofread independently and accurately.
  Incorporate technology as a tool to enhance writing.
  • Use technology appropriately in prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing.
  • Identify potential sources and acquire information from online resources such as Web pages and online databases.
  • Use a variety of software products to plan, organize, and create text and multimedia presentations and projects.
  • Use a variety of electronic resources to cite sources and prepare bibliographies.